There are many gastrointestinal disorders and the most common are IBS, IBD, heartburn/GERD. The most common symptoms of this condition are stomach cramps, stomach pain, gas, diarrhea and bloating. The most common treatment for the gastrointestinal disorders are lifestyle changes and combination of medications.
Symptoms of Gastrointestinal disorders
Gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, bloating, indigestion/dyspepsia and heartburn are common in the community. But these symptoms can be misinterpreted and they can be misunderstood by patients and health care providers.
Upper GI complaints include:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Lump in the throat
- Problems in the passage of food
- Difficulty swallowing
- Chronic and recurrent abdominal pain
- Chest pain
- Also any combination of the mentioned symptoms can be a symptom of upper GI disorders.
Here are the examples of functional GI and motility disorders which are affecting the GI tract, from the esophagus to the stomach and they include:
- Sphincter or Oddi dysfunction
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS)
There are some studies in which is said that some upper GI complaints which represent the functional illness (they do not have physiologic cause found after extensive evaluation.
Lower GI complaints include:
- Rectal pain or bleeding
- Abdominal pain
- Problems in the passage of food or stool
- Gas and bloating
- Bloating or distension
- Accidental stool leakage or incontinence
- Also it can be any combination of the mentioned symptoms
Here are the examples of functional GI and motility disorders which affect the lower GI tract, from our small intestine/bowel to the large intestine/bowel or colon, to the rectum and they include:
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- Intestinal pseudo – obstruction
- Hirschsprung’s disease
- Functional abdominal pain syndrome
- Dyssenergic defacation
- Chronic diarrhea
- Chronic constipation
- Bowel incontinence
Functional GI disorders:
Functional gastrointestinal and motility disorders are the most common GI disorders in the general population.
Childhood functional disorders: children and adolescents:
- Functional defecation disorders: functional constipation, non – retentive fecal incontinence
- Functional abdominal pain disorders: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), abdominal migraine, childhood functional abdominal pain
- Functional nausea and vomiting disorders
Childhood functional GI disorders: neonate and toddlers:
- Functional constipation: infrequent, painful, hard or large diameter bowel movements
- Infant dyschezia: straining and crying with stool passage
- Functional diarrhea: recurrent, daily and painless passage of three or more large and unformed stools for at least four weeks in infancy or preschool years
- Infant colic: long bouts of crying or irritability without obvious cause
- Cyclic vomiting syndrome: In this condition there are recurrent episodes of intense vomiting and nausea which are lasting from hours to days separated by symptom – free intervals lasting weeks to months
- Infant rumination syndrome: voluntary, habitual regurgitation of recently swallowed stomach contents, which is rare condition
- Infant regurgitation: uncomplicated involuntary return (regurgitation) of stomach contents into the mouth. This is a normal and common condition in infants.
- Functional defacation disorders: Dyssynergic defecation or inadequate defecatory propulsion
- Functional anorectal pain: Levator any syndrome is a dull ache in the rectum that lasts for hours to days. Proctalgia fugax is a condition of an infrequent sudden, severe pain in the anal area of short duration
- Fecal incontinence: recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material where no structural or neurological cause is evident.
Gallbladder and Sphincter of Oddi (SO) disorders):
- Biliary pain
- Functional pancreatic SO disorder
Centrally mediated disorders of gastrointestinal pain:
- Narcotic bowel syndrome (NBS)/opioid – induced GI hyperalgesia: This condition is characterized by the paradoxical development of, or increases in, abdominal pain associated with continuous or increasing dosages of opioids
- Centrally mediated abdominal pain syndrome (CAPS): This condition is characterized by continuous or frequently recurrent abdominal pain, either not or infrequently related to gut function and associated with some loss of daily activities
As with the upper GI complaints, the lower GI complaints result from physiologic illness or represent a functional disorder (ie, no patholigc, biochemical or radiologic abnormalities are found even after extensive evaluation). The reasons for the functional symptoms are not clear. There are some studies in which is said that patients with gastrointestinal disorder symptoms may have nociception and disturbances of motility or both, for example when they perceive as uncomfortable certain sensations (for example, luminal distention, peristalsis) which other people do not find distressing.