Bronchial asthma (or asthma)
What is asthma?
Asthma is a chronic disease that affects both children and adults. The air passages in the lungs narrow due to inflammation and contraction of the muscles around the small airways. This causes asthma symptoms – coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and a feeling of tightness in the chest. These symptoms are episodic and often worse at night or during exercise.
Asthma symptoms can also be exacerbated by other common triggers. Such provoking factors in different people can be viral infections (colds), dust, smoke, fumes, weather changes, grass and tree pollen, animal hair and bird feathers, strong-smelling soaps and perfumes.
Bronchial asthma was recognized as the most common chronic disease in children, ahead of diabetes and other diseases. In average, asthma in children most often manifests itself from the age of 1-5, in adults the onset of the disease coincides with the age of 27-30.
Bronchial asthma is still an incurable disease. All preventive and therapeutic measures are aimed at improving the quality of life of patients with bronchial asthma, providing them with normal work and life activities.
Causes of Asthma
An increased risk of developing asthma is associated with a large number of different factors, although it can be difficult to identify a single immediate cause of the disease.
- The likelihood of asthma increases in the presence of asthmatics in the family, especially among close relatives – parents or brothers / sisters.
- Asthma is more common in people with other allergic conditions, such as eczema and rhinitis (hay fever).
- Asthma prevalence increases with urbanization, possibly due to multiple lifestyle factors.
- Disturbances early in life affect lung development and may increase the risk of asthma. These include low birth weight, prematurity, exposure to tobacco smoke and other sources of air pollution, and viral respiratory infections.
- It is also believed that the risk of asthma is increased by exposure to a range of allergens and irritants present in the environment, including indoor and outdoor air pollution, the presence of house dust mites, mold, as well as exposure to chemicals, exhaust fumes. or industrial dust.
- Children and adults who are overweight or obese are at increased risk of developing asthma.